Parties voted for a draft law allowing the cultivation and sale of pharmaceutical cannabis in Parliament's plenary session on Friday night.
A roll-call vote, requested by the main opposition party SYRIZA, registered 158 votes for and 33 against.
The bill was rejected by MPs of the Communist Party of Greece, Greek Solution and MeRA 25.
SYRIZA itself abstained from the vote to protest the fact the roll-call vote was not carried out in person.
Movement for Change (KINAL), which initially said they would support the bill, abstained also, charging that holding roll-call votes requested by SYRIZA when that party does not participate in them undermines parliamentary procedures.
The bill, submitted by the Development & Investments Ministry, is labelled "Production, extraction and distribution of final products of pharmaceutical cannabis of the species Cannabis Sativa L, containing over 0.2% of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)."