The Egyptian-French archaeological mission of the European Institute of Underwater Archeology (IEASM) discovered a shipwreck off the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.
While working in Alexandria, the researchers discovered the wreck of a warship from the Ptolemaic period and the remains of a Greek funerary area dating back to the beginning of the fourth century BC.
The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Egypt for almost three centuries (305 – 30 BCE), eventually falling to the Romans.
They isolated themselves in the capital city of Alexandria, a city envisioned by Alexander the Great.
The city was Greek both in language and practice.
There were no marriages with outsiders; brother married sister or uncle married niece.
The last Ptolemaic queen, Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE), remained Greek but was the first Ptolemaic ruler that spoke Egyptian as well as other languages.
Except for the first two Ptolemaic pharaohs, Ptolemy I and his son Ptolemy II, most of the family was fairly inept and, in the end, only maintained authority with the assistance of Rome.
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