The US-born vocal coach Joseph Giardina, famous for coaching Greek starlet Maria Callas, died in Rome at the age of 91.
He taught for the last 20 years of his career in Rome.
A Juilliard student, Joseph Giardina jumped in at 16 as assistant to Fritz Stiedry at the Metropolitan Opera, working with all the Golden Age stars.
He moved to Rome in the 1970s.
Of Callas he said: "Callas was a very modest woman, unfortunately she had a sad and troubled life. She was very studious, she was able to spend half an hour trying a trill."